Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion, and Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2006). Kuperman, Alan J. "The Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans," International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 1 (March 2008), pp. 49–80. Roberts, Hugh. "Who Said Gaddafi Had to Go?" London Review of Books, Vol. 33, No. 22 (November 2011), pp. 8–18. UN Human Rights Council, nineteenth session, "Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Libya," A/HRC/19/68, advance unedited version, March 2, 2012. Deal With the Region You Have, Not the Region You Want. Twitter Diplomacy: Preventing Twitter Wars from Escalating into Real Wars. In testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Committee about China's expanding geopolitical role, Philippe Le Corre said Congress must take a leading role in reinforcing a transatlantic dialogue on China's influence. War Between China and the United States Isn't Inevitable, But It's Likely: An Excerpt From Graham Allison's "Destined for War". Trump Does Not Believe in NATO, He Has Even Sought to Divide It. Why Washington Didn't Intervene In Syria Last Time. The Conventional Wisdom Is Wrong. Libya's 2011 uprising was never peaceful, but instead was armed and violent from the start. Muammar al-Qaddafi did not target civilians or resort to indiscriminate force. Although inspired by humanitarian impulse, NATO's intervention did not aim mainly to protect civilians, but rather to overthrow Qaddafi's regime, even at the expense of increasing the harm to Libyans. The Intervention Backfired. NATO's action magnified the conflict's duration about sixfold and its death toll at least sevenfold, while also exacerbating human rights abuses, humanitarian suffering, Islamic radicalism, and weapons proliferation in Libya and its neighbors. If Libya was a "model intervention," then it was a model of failure. Trump Administration Outdoes Itself on Climate Change Denial, Insists Arctic Warming is Good. Get in-depth analysis delivered right to your inbox. In the immediate wake of the military victory, U.S. officials were triumphant. Writing in these pages in 2012, Ivo Daalder, then the U.S. permanent representative to NATO, and James Stavridis, then supreme allied commander of Europe, declared, "NATO's operation in Libya has rightly been hailed as a model intervention." In the Rose Garden after Qaddafi's death, Obama himself crowed, "Without putting a single U.S. service member on the ground, we achieved our objectives." Indeed, the United States seemed to have scored a hat trick: nurturing the Arab Spring, averting a Rwanda-like genocide, and eliminating Libya as a potential source of terrorism. - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. Stagnation and Stalemate Where the Arab Spring Began. Three Lessons. First, beware rebel propaganda that seeks intervention by falsely crying genocide. Second, avoid intervening on humanitarian grounds in ways that reward rebels and thus endanger civilians, unless the state is already targeting noncombatants. Third, resist the tendency of humanitarian intervention to morph into regime change, which amplifies the risk to civilians. A Model Intervention? Many commentators have praised NATO's 2011 intervention in Libya as a humanitarian success for averting a bloodbath in that country's second largest city, Benghazi, and helping eliminate the dictatorial regime of Muammar al-Qaddafi. These proponents accordingly claim that the intervention demonstrates how to successfully implement a humanitarian principle known as the responsibility to protect (R2P). Indeed, the top U.S. representatives to the transatlantic alliance declared that "NATO's operation in Libya has rightly been hailed as a model intervention." A more rigorous assessment, however, reveals that NATO's intervention backfired: it increased the duration of Libya's civil war by about six times and its death toll by at least seven times, while also exacerbating human rights abuses, humanitarian suffering, Islamic radicalism, and weapons proliferation in Libya and its neighbors. If this is a "model intervention," then it is a model of failure. Flawed Narrative The conventional account of Libya's conflict and NATO's intervention is misleading in several key aspects. First, contrary to Western media reports, Qaddafi did not initiate Libya's violence by targeting peaceful protesters. The United Nations and Amnesty International have documented that in all four Libyan cities initially consumed by civil conflict in mid-February 2011—Benghazi, Al Bayda, Tripoli, and Misurata—violence was actually initiated by the protesters. The government responded to the rebels militarily but never intentionally targeted civilians or resorted to "indiscriminate" force, as Western media claimed. Early press accounts exaggerated the dea. Liberal democracy and capitalism have been the two commanding political and economic ideas of Western history since the 19th century. Now, however, the fate of these once-galvanizing global principles is increasingly uncertain. Kuperman, Alan. " Lessons from Libya: How Not to Intervene." Policy Brief, Quarterly Journal: International Security, The website Russia Matters looks at Secretary Pompeo's trip to Russia and provides comments related to the meetings along with analysis and recent developments that add context. Comments cover a range of issues, from North Korea and Iran to NATO. DoD/Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Andrew Smith, U.S. Navy. How Jordan and Lebanon Sheltered Millions of Refugees. Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring. 11 March 2011: Cameron joined forces with Sarkozy after Sarkozy demanded immediate action from international community for a no-fly zone against air attacks by Gaddafi. . III. Violence escalates to civil war as NATO enforces no-fly zone. Readiness has been at the top of NATO's agenda since 2014. Jonathan Hill, a former staff member of NATO's Operations Division, looks back through history to show that many of the current issues surrounding readiness, successful deterrence and reassurance are not new. The views expressed are his own. In August 2004, during the Iraq War, NATO formed the NATO Training Mission– Iraq, a training mission to assist the Iraqi security forces in conjunction with the US led MNF-I. . Can ISIS regroup? Lessons from interviews with ex-ISIS fighters. The Russian intervention in Crimea in 2014 led to strong condemnation by NATO nations and the creation of a new "spearhead" force of 5,000 troops at bases in Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria. . 40 civilians killed in Tripoli (Vatican claim) . In the first half of the 20th century, excessive nationalism, radical ideologies and misguided isolationism plunged Europe into two major wars that set half the world on fire. Today, as these trends are again on the rise, it is instructive to recall how an idealistic pacifist came to the conclusion that a collective defence pact between like-minded countries was the only way to keep the peace. Michael Rühle of NATO's International Staff tells the story of Nobel Peace Prize winner Norman Angell. The views expressed are his own. Speech by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the Munich Security Conference. United Nations: early condemnation and non-military measures leads to no-fly zone. A Coalition of States, which ultimately included 15 NATO countries, Sweden, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, took part in implementing the no-fly zone over Libya mandated by Resolution 1973. The Coalition successfully provided support to NTC forces in Benghazi and Misrata and then later in Libya's capital Tripoli, Gaddafi's hometown Sirte, and other loyalist strongholds in Libya. Crimes against humanity committed by pro-Gaddafi forces continued until 24 October 2011 when NTC officials declared the end of the eight-month conflict in Libya following the death of Gaddafi and his son Mutassim on 20 October. The NATO mission ended on 31 October as the UN Security Council voted unanimously on 26 October 2011 to end the no-fly zone in Libya. NATO also came under scrutiny from some Member States and civil society over whether the organization had gone beyond its mandate from the Council to protect the population by helping rebel forces in defeating Gaddafi's army, thereby effecting regime change. European nations called for Gaddafi to step down as early as 12 March 2011, which has invited skepticism that the NATO mission adopted the leader's removal from power as an objective or even that some Security Council members assumed regime change to be a necessary step to protect the population in Libya. 20 October 2011: When Hillary Clinton learned of the possible war crime and resulting death of Muammar Gaddafi she was covered to have said: "We came, we saw, he died" in paraphrasing the famous quote of the Roman imperator Julius Caesar. NATO Allies stand with Turkey: Secretary General Stoltenberg. Main articles: International Security Assistance Force and War in Afghanistan. NATO Secretary General to travel to the Republic of Poland. On 10 and 11 April 1994, the United Nations Protection Force called in air strikes to protect the Goražde safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Bosnian Serb military command outpost near Goražde by two US F-16 jets acting under NATO direction. . The Security Council responded to concern from the Arab League, African Union, Organization of the Islamic Conference, and Human Rights Council, and adopted Resolution 1970 (unanimously) on 26 February 2011. Resolution 1970 affirmed Libya's 'responsibility to protect' and marked the first time the Council had referred to the RtoP framework since a 2006 Resolution on the situation in Darfur. Resolution 1970 imposed an arms embargo and travel ban on the Gaddafi family and key members of government, froze the assets of the Gaddafi family, and referred the situation to the International Criminal Court for investigation into reports of crimes against humanity. 10 March 2011: France recognized the Libyan NTC as the legitimate government of Libya soon after Sarkozy met with them in Paris. This meeting was arranged by Bernard-Henri Lévy. . Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation at the US Department of State visits NATO. Turkey invoked the first Article 4 meetings in 2003 at the start of the Iraq War. Turkey also invoked this article twice in 2012 during the Syrian Civil War, after the downing of an unarmed Turkish F-4 reconnaissance jet, and after a mortar was fired at Turkey from Syria, .